The testicles are the glands where testosterone and sperms are produced and hence these are a vital part of the male reproductive system. The testicles are usually contained in a sheath called the scrotum which hangs out of the body in order to maintain the optimum temperature that the sperm cells need to survive.
Urinal tract infection in males is usually not a very common phenomenon but Inflammation or infection of one or both of the man’s testicles is a common condition that should never be overlooked. If not managed properly this can adversely affect their health and fertility. Infections that affect the testicles and is usually characterized by testicular pain. Some such conditions can include orchitis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, testicular trauma, and testicular torsion.
Orchitis is an inflammatory condition caused by a viral or bacterial infection and this could affect one or both testicles. Orchitis cases most of the time end up being acute, so the main symptom which is severe pain could occur suddenly. The pain could be in one or both testicles and this could spread to the groin area as well. The bacteria that cause orchitis include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus.
Some other accompanying symptoms could be swollen or tender testicles, blood in semen, high fever, nausea, vomiting, pain with urination, straining with a bowel movement, intercourse or feeling ill and feeling of heaviness in the swollen testicle. Orchitis happens from the spread of bacteria through the blood from somewhere else in the body.
Children could also get orchitis caused by infection with the mumps virus. It is important for all children, boys especially, to get the vaccine that protects against mumps within 10 years old as kids affected with orchitis may get a condition called testicular atrophy or the shrinking of the testicles. Bacterial orchitis happen in sexually active men, or in men older than 50 years of age with benign prostatic hypertrophy.
The condition epididymitis is the swelling of the epididymis which is the highly convoluted duct found behind the testis through which sperms travels to the vas deferens. When this progresses, this can lead to epididymo-orchitis which is an infection of the tube that carries semen out of your testicles. The condition can be either chronic or acute. When the epididymis is infected by viral or bacterial infections the testicle gets infected as well because the epididymis is directly attached to the testicle.
Some common causes of epididymitis could be due to sexually transmitted diseases like Gonorrhea, or obstruction in the bladder outlet from the enlargement of the prostate due to aging or from bacterial prostatitis that is an infection which affects the prostate gland.
Another serious condition affecting the testicles is Testicular torsion or the twisting of the spermatic cord, artery or vein that cuts the supply of blood to the testicle and the surrounding structures found in the scrotum. If not treated promptly the testicle tissue could die as a result. To diagnose inflammation or infection of the testicles a series of tests can be done like ultrasound of the inflamed testicle, a rectal exam to check prostate for infection, urine test to look for STDs and other bacteria that might be responsible for the infection or even blood tests for HIV and syphilis.
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